Brochos for Breakfast

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By Rabbi Dovid Heber, Kashrus Administrator

One of the profound aspects of our Torah Hakdosha is the ability for anyone, regardless of age or wisdom, to appreciate the Torah on his or her own level. For example, Chumash and Rashiare studied by the greatest Torah scholars, as well as elementary school children. This concept is also applicable to Hilchos Brochos. To a first grader studying for a Brochos Bee, or a Talmudic scholar studying Perek Kaitzad Mevorchim in Masechta Brochos, learning aboutbrochos can be fascinating.

A daily and extremely relevant application of this principle lies in the area of brochos on breakfast cereals. What makes determining the correct brochos for these products so complicated? Technological advances in food manufacturing have had a great impact onHilchos Brochos. A slight difference in production, or even in the manufacturer’s intention of the use of ingredients, can change the brocha. As will be explained, cereals such as corn flakes produced by different companies may look the same to the consumer. However, they may be manufactured differently, thereby changing the brocha recited. Often, this background information is not available to the consumer; hence, the confusion and intrigue in discovering what goes on “behind the scenes” and its impact on Hilchos Brochos.

To ensure the highest kashrus standards, Star-K Kosher Certification inspects many food plants throughout the world. In doing so, the Star-K has the opportunity to either see or discuss manufacturing procedures that have a direct impact on the brochos of various food items. The following information is what has been obtained by kashrus professionals or heard from company personnel, and then presented to the Star-K Rabbinic Administrator, Rabbi Moshe Heinemann, shlita, for his halachic insights and psak halacha.

I. Chameishes Minei Dagan Cereals

Special halachic status has been given to products coming from chameishes minei dagan, the five special grains: wheat, spelt, barley, oats, and rye.1 When these grains are ground up, mixed with water, and baked into cake, cookies, crackers and other pas haba’ah b’kisninproducts, the brocha is Mezonos and the brocha achrona is Al Hamichya. If one is koveya seudah (eats enough to constitute a meal), the brocha is Hamotzi and one must recite Birchas Hamazon.2 One of the definitions of pas haba’ah b’kisnin is that the dough is baked into a hardened crispy product. Products such as pretzels and Post Grape Nuts cereal3 are included in this category of pas haba’ah b’kisnin, and their brocha is Mezonos. The brocha onCheerios, Wheaties, and Shredded Wheat cereals is also Mezonos, and the brocha achrona is Al Hamichya.

In the above cases, the chameishes minei dagan is broken down. However, if the grains remain whole and are simply roasted, they are no different from any other variety of produce which grows from the ground (e.g., corn), and the brocha is Hoadama.4 What this means is as follows: The brocha on unprocessed and slightly processed (e.g., toasted whole) wheat or oats is Hoadama. The brocha on fully processed wheat and oats (e.g., flour and water that is baked) is Mezonos. The question the poskim address is — at what point are the wheat and oats considered processed enough to recite a Mezonos?5

To understand this, it is important to know the following: Wheat has four parts—the endosperm, bran, germ and husk. Endosperm makes up the majority of the kernel and is the primary source of flour, bread and cake. The husk, wheat’s outer shell, comes off easily by threshing. The remaining kernel (with endosperm, germ and bran) is called “whole wheat.”

If the whole wheat is puffed, the brocha remains Hoadama. An example of this is Kashi 7 Whole Grain Puffs.6 This is a unique cereal which includes chameishes minei dagan with all the bran remaining on the kernels. Similarly, Go Lean (original) is made up of Kashi puffed grains7; hence, the brocha is Hoadama.8

The process for most other puffed wheat is to first remove bran from the kernel through a process known as pearling. In this process, some endosperm may also incidentally be removed. The kernel is then placed into a pressurized heated chamber and steamed. The moisture rushes out of the kernel, thereby “popping” it.

There are different opinions as to which brocha is recited. Some opinions say this is processed enough to become Mezonos. This psak is based on the Mishnah Brura which says one can recite a Mezonos on pearled barley,2 a product that is similar in certain ways to puffed wheat.10 Others are of the opinion that regular puffed wheat is not processed enough, and thebrocha is Hoadama. In order to be Mezonos, the product must be a “maaseh kedeira”, similar to a bowl of oatmeal in which the grains stick together. In puffed wheat this does not occur, hence the brocha would be Hoadama.11

L’halacha, puffed wheat should ideally be eaten in the middle of a bread meal. Otherwise, Rav Moshe Feinstein, zt”l,12 says one can recite either a Mezonos or HoadamaRav Moshe also says the brocha achrona on puffed wheat is Borei Nefashos.13 This halacha applies also toKellogg’s Honey Smacks and Post Golden Crisp.14 The brocha on wheat cakes is Mezonosand Al Hamichya, due to the process which makes it a maaseh kdeira.15

Wheat germ is the “embryo” of the kernel.  It is heated to deactivate enzymes which would allow sprouting. It is generally eaten with other foods and would usually be tofel, secondary to the other ingredients in the product.  If one eats wheat germ by itself the brocha is Hoadama,since the heating is only applied to deactivate the enzymes, not to cook the germ.16 It is not processed enough to become Mezonos; hence, the brocha remains Hoadama.
The brocha on bran is Shehakol.17 Therefore, the brocha on Kellogg’s All Bran cereal isShehakol,18 and the brocha achrona is Borei Nefashos.

II. Non-Chameishes Minei Dagan Cereals

The brocha on produce that grows from the ground is Borei P’ri Hoadama. For example, thebrocha on corn and potatoes is Hoadama. However, if the produce is ground into flour (i.e. it is no longer recognizable), and is not from the five special types of grain, the brocha becomesShehakol. Therefore, the brocha on corn chips (made from corn flour) and cake made from potato starch is Shehakol.19  The brocha achrona on all non-chameishes minei dagan products is Borei Nefashos.

Rav Moshe Feinstein, zt’l, explains20 if the grain has not been ground down to flour, but only popped (e.g., popcorn, or the grit is rolled into corn flakes), it retains its Hoadama status.Kellogg’s Corn Flakes and Frosted Flakes cereal are made from recognizable corn pieces (called grits) that are not ground into flour, so the brocha is Hoadama.  However, Kemach Brand Corn Flakes is made from corn flour; therefore, its brocha is Shehakol.  The same is true regarding Corn Chex; therefore, the brocha is Shehakol.21

If a corn flake cereal is not on the brochos list, how can one tell if the brocha is Hoadama orShehakol?  If the cereal lists corn flour, the corn has been ground and reformed into pellets so the brocha is Shehakol (if wheat and oat flour are not present). If the cereal lists corn or milled corn, it may be a whole grain product and the brocha is Hoadama, or it may be ground and thebrocha is Shehakol.  To determine the brocha, one must look carefully at various flakes.  If they have jagged edges, the surface of the flake is bumpy, it comes from a grit22 and thebrocha is Hoadama.  If the corn flakes are relatively smooth (very small bumps), and the edges are smoother, the corn flakes are from a more uniform pellet (made from corn flour) and thebrocha is Shehakol.

The corn flake on the left is Shehakol because it is made from flour that is reshaped into uniform pellets.  Note the smooth edges.  The corn flake on the right is Hoadama, as it is made from corn grits.  Note the jagged edges – especially on the upper-right hand side.  Also, note the bumpier surface.


Kellogg’s Corn Pops is manufactured differently in various facilities worldwide. In the United States, the corn is not ground into flour, and corn pieces are used; therefore, the brocha isHoadama.

Rice is unique, as its brocha is Mezonos and its brocha achrona is Borei Nefashos.23  This includes processed rice products, such as Kellogg’s Rice Krispies and Post Fruity Pebbles. It also includes products manufactured from rice flour.

III. Ikkur V’Tofel—Mixtures of Primary and Secondary Ingredients

In general, when there is a mixture of foods with different brochos, one determines the main purpose for eating this food and recites the brocha of that ingredient. This ingredient is known as the ikkur. For example, if one eats a fruit salad with 70% apples and 30% watermelon mixed together, only a Ho’etz is recited.  The watermelon is tafel (secondary) to the apples (theikkur) and, therefore, Hoadama is not recited.

Similarly, if the main ingredient of a cereal is oat or wheat flour the brocha is Mezonos, and the other ingredients are tafel. Furthermore, chameishes minei dagan have a special status:  Even if a non-chameishes minei dagan ingredient (e.g., corn flour) is the first ingredient24 andchameishes minei dagan (e.g., oat flour) is a “secondary” ingredient, under certain conditions, the chameishes minei dagan is still considered the ikkur and the brocha is Mezonos.  This is true even though the chameishes minei dagan is not the ingredient with the highest percentage.

The guidelines are as follows: If the chameishes minei dagan Mezonos ingredient is addedl’taam, as an integral part of the cereal or for its own flavor, even though it is second or third in ingredient amount, the brocha is Mezonos.25  Examples of this include Kellogg’s Apple Jacks and Froot Loops.  Similarly, the brocha on Raisin Bran cereal is Mezonos, as the endosperm in the flakes is the ikkur ingredient.

However, if the chameishes minei dagan is only l’davek — a binding agent for texture or consistency, or a flavoring component to enhance the primary corn ingredient, the brocha isShehakol. An example of this is Quaker Cap’n Crunch cereal.  In this corn cereal, the oat flour is only added as a binding agent.  The brocha on Cheerios, where the oats are the primary ingredient (e.g. Original, Frosted & Honey Nut) is Mezonos.  However, the brocha onFruity Cheerios & Chocolate Cheerios is Shehakol, because the oat flour is not added for taste and is, therefore, secondary to the corn flour and sugar.

This halacha is very relevant to various cereals, as several list corn flour as a first ingredient andchameishes minei dagan, such as oat flour and wheat flour, as a second or third ingredient. Unfortunately, there is no way to tell from the label if the oat or wheat flour is is added l’taam orl’davek.26When there is doubt as to whether the oat flour listed as a secondary ingredient isl’taam or l’davek,and there is no way of determining which one it is, then one should recite aShehakol and Borei Nefashos.27

Kellogg’s Crispix is half rice and half corn. Since it has no ikkur or tofel and no chameishes minei dagan component, two brochos are required.  When eating this cereal, one Crispixshould be split.  A Mezonos is recited, and then one eats from the darker rice side; then aHoadama is recited on the lighter corn half and is eaten.28

Under normal circumstances, when eating cereal with milk, the cereal is the ikkur and the milk is the tafel; therefore, only one brocha is recited. This is true even if one finishes the cereal and there is a little leftover milk eaten alone – no brocha is recited on the milk.29 The same halachaapplies when one eats cereal with raisins, bananas or strawberries. Under normal circumstances, a brocha is recited only on the cereal, not the fruit pieces, since they aretafel.30

IV. Brocha Achrona

If a Shehakol or Hoadama should be recited on a cereal, the brocha achrona is Borei Nefashos. If a Mezonos should be recited, the brocha achrona is Al Hamichya (except for rice cereals, where the brocha achrona is Borei Nefashos).31  To recite any brocha achrona, one must eat a k’zayis (1.27 fl. oz, 38ml, the approximate volume of a golf ball) of cereal in the amount of time known as k’dei achilas pras – ideally within two minutes.32  Under certain circumstances, one may calculate the entire amount of cereal eaten in deciding the brocha achrona. If one eats a k’zayis of a chameishes minei dagan Mezonos cereal, the brocha achrona is Al Hamichya, even though the actual wheat or oat content consumed may be less than a k’zayis.33This is true if the non-chamaishes mini dagan ingredients (e.g. sugar or corn flour) are added to enhance the flavor of the oat and/or wheat flour (i.e. they aretavlin/enhancers) and they are combined into one entity.34

However, in the following cases, the “other” ingredients are not counted as part of the kzayisand one would need a kzayis of chaimaishes minei dagan to recite an Al Hamichya.35     1) If one consumes a chameishes minei dagan cereal that contains pieces upon which a Mezonosis recited and pieces upon which a different brocha is recited (when eaten without thechameishes minei dagan), one must eat a k’zayis of the Mezonos pieces to recite an Al Hamichya.  The other pieces do not count towards an Al Hamichya.36This is true, even though the other pieces are tafel to the chameishes minei dagan and only a Mezonos is recited.  2) Corn flour that is added for its own nutritional value, not as a “tavlin” to flavor the oat flour, is not counted as part of the kzayis for brocha achrona purposes.37

V. Research

It is obvious that for many cereals it is impossible to know the correct brocha, without first determining more information than is available on the box. In developing the Star-K BrochosList, we had to obtain answers to numerous detailed questions regarding the formulation and process of the ingredients and products. Follow up questions and on-site reviews were sometimes necessary. In a few cases, we discovered formula revisions or additional information that caused changes in the brocha of particular cereals.38Undoubtedly, as companies continue to re-formulate cereals for better taste and more nutrition, one should not be surprised to find out that the brocha on one’s favorite cereal has changed.

In the z’chus of beginning the day with reciting the correct brochos, may Klal Yisroel be zocheto an abundance of much brocha v’hatzlacha bestowed upon us from Shamayim.

1.Oats and wheat are the most commonly used chameishes minei dagan grains in cereals.

2. For a full discussion and understanding of pas haba’ah b’kisnin, see Kashrus Kurrents Spring 2005.

3. Although this hardened product has an intermediate doughy stage, it never obtains the full characteristics of bread. Therefore, it is pas haba’ah b’kisnin and the brocha is mezonos.

4. Shulchan Aruch OC 208:4. The Shulchan Aruch says such products should ideally be eaten during a bread meal, since there is a safek (doubt) as to which brocha achrona is recited.L’maaseh, if one eats the grain, the brocha achrona is Borei Nefashos.

5. See Shulchan Aruch and Mishnah Brura OC 208:2 and 208:4 for a full explanation of this issue.

6. This is a cereal manufactured by Kashi Co. and should not be confused with “kasha” (buckwheat). The brocha on kasha is Hoadama because it is not from the chameishes minei dagan.

7. In regards to ikker and tafel issues with such cereals, see Footnote 25.  Golean Crisp! andGolean Crunch! are Mezonos because the chamaishes minei dagan is processed enough.

8. Ideally, they should only be eaten during a meal (see above Footnote 4).

9. Mishnah Brura 208:15.

10. Based on the Sefer Mkor Habracha 54. Additionally, Rav Heinemann explains the followingsvara:  This product is now a “maaseh kedeira” because it has been processed into a form that is normally eaten. According to this svara, the brocha rishona is Mezonos and the brocha achrona is Al Hamichya.  Dayan Krausz, author of Mikor Habrucha, told this author the samesvara.

11. Sefer V’zos Habrocha Chap. 12 as further explained in his Birur Halacha Siman 27:4 in the name of Harav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach, zt”l. Since these grains are simply popped and do not stick together, the brocha is Hoadama. The brocha achrona is a safek and, therefore, the product should l’chatchila be eaten during a bread meal. If it is not eaten during a bread meal, the brocha achrona is Borei Nefashos.

12. Igros Moshe OC 4:45.

13. There is a svara to say that the brocha achrona is Al Hamichya (see Footnote 10).

14. It should be noted that some brands of granola cereals have similar halachic issues. Like puffed wheat, they are chameishes minei dagan products that are “partially processed” (i.e. heated but not broken down into flour).  The same issues as to whether they have been processed enough to become a Mezonos apply.  One would have to determine the exact process of each brand to determine which brocha rishona and achrona are recited. Kellogg’s Lowfat Granola cereal (with and without raisins) has a similar halachic status as puffed wheat. Therefore, a Hoadama or Mezonos may be recited. However, Rav Heinemann is of the opinion that General Mills Nature Valley Granola Bars and Quaker Granola Bars are processed enough to make their brocha rishona a Mezonos and brocha achrona Al Hamichya(i.e. they are a maaseh kdaira.)

15. Enough heat is used and the pieces stick together.

16. See Igros Moshe OC 4:46.

17. Igros Moshe EH 1:114. The “klipos” of the chameishes minei dagan refer to bran.

18. This product also contains a type of bran which contains endosperm. Nonetheless, the endosperm is tafel to the bran. However, Raisin Bran and Fiber One cereals consist of higher amounts of endosperm mixed with the bran product; hence, the brocha is Mezonos. This will be addressed in the Ikkur V’Tofel section.

19. The same is true of Pringles Potato Crisps, since they are produced from ground up potatoes that are no longer recognizable.

20.  Choveres Torah V’horaah 5733.

21.It is interesting to note that the “corn” in Corn Chex is different than the corn in Crispixcereal (despite the fact that the finished product looks similar).  In Corn Chex, the corn used is no longer nikker (noticeable as corn), and in Crispix it is still nikker; hence, the difference inbrocha.

22.The shape of the natural grit is not as uniform or smooth as a manufactured pellet; hence, the rougher edges and bumps.

23. Shulchan Aruch OC 208:7.  It should be noted that this is true, even if brown rice is used. The brocha on rice cakes is also Mezonos and Borais Nefashos.

24. Ingredients on food products are listed in order of percentage.  The ingredient with the highest percentage is listed first.

25. Sefer Pischei Halacha Hilchos Brachos Chap. 7 Footnote 32 states that according to theMogen Avraham 208:7, chameishes minei dagan which is Hoadama (e.g., that was puffed without removing the bran) is also considered an ikkur even if it is not the first ingredient listed (as long as it is added l’taam). This is relevant to Kashi Go Lean (Original) and Good Friendscereals upon which a Hoadama is recited. For a discussion of this topic, see the entire footnote in Sefer Pischei Halacha.

26.If wheat starch is added, it is definitely l’davek and the brocha is Shehakol.  Wheat gluten is also typically added l’davek.

27. Licorice contains wheat flour added l’davek and,therefore, is Shehakol (unless the flour is listed as the first ingredient).

28. See footnote 21 regarding the corn side.

29. For a full discussion of this topic, including other cases of eating cereal with milk, see Igros Moshe OC 4:43 and Sefer Pischei Halacha 7:38.

30. See Sefer Pischei Halacha Perek 7, Se’if 38 and Footnote 62 for a full discussion of different cases involving fruit added to cereal.

31. Regarding the brocha achrona on puffed wheat products, see above Section I and footnotes 10-14.

32. B’dieved, if one eats a k’zayis within four minutes, a brocha achrona may be recited. For a full discussion of this topic, see Kashrus Kurrents Summer 2005.

33. The Mishnah Brura 208:48 says this is the “minhag ha’olam.” See also Igros Moshe OC1:71.

34. For example, if one ate exactly a k’zayis of Cheerios, the “minhag ha’olam” is to recite anAl Hamichya because the oat flour, corn starch, sugar, and salt are all combined into each of the Cheerios.  The non-chamaishes minei dagan ingredients are “tavlin” to the oats.  For a further discussion, see Maamar Mordechai O.C. 208:15.

35. If there is no kzayis of chaimaishes minei dagan, a Borei Nefashos is recited (if at least akzayis in total is consumed).

36. For example, if one ate exactly a k’zayis of Post Cranberry Almond Crunch, one recites a Mezonos but can not recite an Al Hamichya afterwardsSince the Mezonos pieces do not add up to a k’zayis, and the cranberries and almonds are not mitztaref to the wheat flakes, aBorei Nefashos is recited (see Mishnah Brura 210:1). If one ate exactly a k’zayis of Raisin Bran (i.e. chameishes minei dagan flakes and shivas haminim raisins), there is a question amongst the poskim whether a Borei Nefashos or may’ain shalosh is recited. For an explanation of thishalacha, see Piskei Teshuvos 210:6. Of course, if one ate a k’zayis of Mezonos pieces of Post Cranberry Almond Crunch or Raisin Bran, an Al Hamichya is recited.

37. See Shulchan Aruch 208:9.

38.Please note the following cereals fall into this category, and the listed brochos have changed over the years:  Corn ChexHoney Nut ChexHoneycombCrunchy Corn Bran,Honey SmacksGolden Crisp and Kellogg’s Lowfat Granola.  Also, the brocha achrona onSpecial K (Original) has changed.  Please see the current Star-K list for the correct brochosfor these cereals.